How do scientists ask and answer questions and how do they evaluate data? The How Do We Know? feature in every chapter helps students understand the process of science by showing students the path that scientists took to uncover specific biological discoveries.

The Scientific Study of Life

Chapter 1. The Nature of Biology
Why Does Biology Matter to You?

How Do We Know? Spontaneous Generation


Chapter 2. The Nature of Science
How Do We Know How the World Works?

How Do We Know? Hypothesis Testing and Scientific Proof


Reproduction and Inheritance

Chapter 3. Human Development
How Do Cells Make a Person?

How Do We Know? Eggs and Sperm Are Both Needed for Fertilization


Chapter 4. Inheritance, Genes, and Physical Characteristics
Does Disease Have a Genetic Basis?

How Do We Know? Pedigree Analysis


Chapter 5. Cancer
How Can It Be Prevented, Diagnosed, and Treated?

How Do We Know? Cancer-Causing Genes from Malfunctioning Normal Genes


Chapter 6. Reproduction
What “Kind” of Baby Is It?

How Do We Know? The Female Reproductive Tract Helps Sperm Find an Egg


Chapter 7. Plants, Agriculture, and Genetic Engineering
Can We Create Better Plants and Animals?

How Do We Know? Evaluating the Safety of Genetically Engineered Products


Chapter 8. Health Care and the Human Genome
How Will We Use Our New Medical and Genetic Skills?

How Do We Know? How Human Embryonic Stem Cells Can Be Directed to Form Specialized Cells


Chapter 9. Evolution
How Do Species Arise and Adapt?

How Do We Know? Constructing Evolutionary Trees


Chapter 10. The Evolution of Disease
Why Do We Get Sick?

How Do We Know? The Many Species That Live on You


Physiology: The Body in Health and Disease

Chapter 11. Homeostasis
Why is it important that the body maintain its internal balance?

How Do We Know? Hypothalamic Control of Temperature


Chapter 12. Circulation and Respiration
What If Your Body Doesn’t Get the Oxygen It Needs?

How Do We Know? Measuring Blood Pressure


Chapter 13: The Nervous System
Does Your Brain Determine Who You Are?

How Do We Know? The Pleasure Centers of the Brain


Chapter 14. Infectious Disease and the Immune System
How Are Invaders Repelled, Evaded, or Killed?

How Do We Know? The Immune Response Is Two-Fisted


Chapter 15. Nutrition, Activity, and Wellness
How Can We Live a Healthy Lifestyle?

How Do We Know? Stress Weakens the Immune Response


Interacting with Nature

Chapter 16. Ecology
How Do We Benefit from a Functional Ecosystem?

How Do We Know? Long-Term Ecological Research


Chapter 17. Biodiversity and Human Affairs
How Is the Human Race Like a Meteorite?

How Do We Know? Experimental Island Zoogeography


Chapter 18. Human Population Growth
How Many People Can a Single Planet Hold?

How Do We Know? Modeling Population Growth



[“How Do We Know”] is a very important feature of a gen-ed text. I think that short vignettes such as this enliven the text, and make it a bunch more interesting to the student … I very much like the “informed citizen” approach.
Stephen Wagener
- Western Connecticut State University

The material is interesting and engages the student.
Donna Bivans
- Pitt Community College

Probably one of the best presentations of evolutionary trees that I have seen …
Claudia Jolls
- East Carolina University

… good job of integrating them through the chapter.
Erik Scully
- Towson University

good example, important concept and technique. At the right level.
Lisa Weasel
- Portland State University

Very relevant. Students really enjoy learning information that they can apply to themselves.
Lisa Bryant
- Arkansas State University Beebe