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The Scientific Study of Life

Chapter 1. The Nature of Biology
Why Does Biology Matter to You?

Case Study: The “Infidelity Gene”

  • 1.1. How Does Biology Affect Your Life?
  • 1.2. What Are the Features of Life?
  • 1.3. How Do Organisms Function?
    • Atoms, Chemical Bonding, and Molecules
    • Macromolecules
    • Cells
    • Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
    • Energy Extraction and Use
  • 1.4. How Do Organisms Reproduce?
    • Inheritance
    • Reproduction
  • 1.5. How Does Life Evolve?
    • Darwin’s Theory
    • Extending Darwin’s Theory Through Time
    • Evolution Is the Unifying Theme of Biology
  • 1.6. What Patterns of Diversity Are Found in Nature?
    • Life Is Diverse
    • Evolutionary Diversification Leads to Degrees of Relatedness
    • Organizing Hierarchies in the Diversity of Life

Biology in Perspective

Technology Connection: Identifying the “Infidelity Gene”
Scientist Spotlight: Carol W. Greider (1961–)
Life Application: Determining When Life Has Ended
How Do We Know? Spontaneous Generation


Chapter 2. The Nature of Science
How Do We Know How the World Works?

Case Study: The “The Mysterious Case of Childbed Fever”

  • 2.1. How Would a Scientist Investigate Childbed Fever?
    • Looking for Clues
    • Possible Causes
    • “Cadaverous Particles”
  • 2.2. How Does Science Work?
    • Observation and Facts
    • Hypotheses and Predictions
    • Testing
    • Evaluation and Interpretation of Results
    • Scientific Theories
  • 2.3. What Assumptions Does Science Make About Nature?
    • Cause and Effect
    • Consistency and Repeatability
    • Materialism
  • 2.4. What Are the Principal Features of Science?
    • Empirical Evidence
    • Testability
    • Generality
  • 2.5. How Does Science Differ from Other Ways of Knowing?
  • 2.6. How Does Science Differ from Pseudoscience and Quackery?

Biology in Perspective

Life Application: Childbed Fever
Scientist Spotlight: Robert Koch (1843–1910)
How Do We Know? Hypothesis Testing and Scientific Proof
Technology Connection: Throat Cultures


Reproduction and Inheritance

Chapter 3. Human Development
How Do Cells Make a Person?

Case Study: Unusually Close Sisters

  • 3.1. What Are the Units of Life?
  • 3.2. What Cell Structures Play a Role in Embryo Development?
    • Cell Membrane
    • Nucleus
    • Mitochondria
    • Endomembrane System
  • 3.3. How Do Eggs and Sperm Form?
    • Meiosis I: The First Round of Cell Division
    • Meiosis II: The Second Round of Cell Division
  • 3.4. What Happens in Fertilization?
  • 3.5. How Does an Embryo Form and Ultimately Become a Fetus?
    • Mitosis
    • Gastrulation and Organ Formation
    • Differentiation
    • Gene Expression
  • 3.6. What Are the Key Events of Pregnancy?
    • Embryonic Development: Conception to Eight Weeks
    • Fetal Development: Three Months to Nine Months
  • 3.7. What Happens in Labor and Delivery?
  • 3.8. How Do Twins Form?
  • 3.9. What Can Conjoined Twins Tell Us About Biology and Ourselves?
    • Explanations for Conjoining
    • What Conjoining May Tell Us About Biology
    • What Conjoining May Tell Us About Ourselves

Biology in Perspective

Scientist Spotlight: Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723)
How Do We Know? Eggs and Sperm Are Both Needed for Fertilization
Technology Connection: Ultrasound
Life Application: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Chapter 4. Inheritance, Genes, and Physical Characteristics
Does Disease Have a Genetic Basis?

Case Study: Sickle Cell Disease, Malaria, and Human Evolution

  • 4.1. What Is Sickle Cell Disease?
    • How Sickling Happens
    • Sickle Cell Disease and Inheritance
  • 4.2. Could Molecular Medicine Prevent Sickle Cell Disease?
  • 4.3. Where Is Our Genetic Information Stored?
  • 4.4. How Did Mendel Discover the Rules of Inheritance?
    • Mendel’s Experiments
    • Gametes and Monohybrids
    • Mendel’s Rules
  • 4.5. How Much Do Mendel’s Rules Explain?
    • Alleles Can Interact, and So Can Genes
    • Genes May Affect More Than One Characteristic
    • Gene Expression Depends on the Environment
  • 4.6. What Are Genes Made Of?
  • 4.7. How Does DNA Function?
    • Transformation
    • The “Transforming Substance”
  • 4.8. What Processes Must DNA Accomplish?
    • Replication
    • Mutation
    • Protein Production
  • 4.9. Why Is Protein Structure So Important?

Biology in Perspective

Technology Connection: Electrophoresis
How Do We Know? Pedigree Analysis
Scientist Spotlight: Rosalind Franklin (1920–1958)
Life Application: The Effectiveness of Genetic Screening


Chapter 5. Cancer
How Can It Be Prevented, Diagnosed, and Treated?

Case Study: Xeroderma pigmentosum

  • 5.1. How Does Cancer Make You Sick?
  • 5.2. How Do Cancer Cells Differ from Normal Cells?
  • 5.3. What Is the Life Cycle of a Cell?
    • The Molecules That Regulate Cell Division
    • The Cell Cycle
  • 5.4. In What Ways Is Cancer a Genetic Disorder?
    • Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes
    • Chromosomal Abnormalities
  • 5.5. What Risk Factors Are Associated with Cancer?
    • Smoking
    • Diet and Exercise
    • Excessive Alcohol Use
    • Radiation
    • Infection
    • Workplace Carcinogens and Pollution
    • Inheritance
    • Age
    • Poverty
  • 5.6. How Is Cancer Diagnosed?
  • 5.7. How Is Cancer Treated?
    • Surgery
    • Radiation Therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Treatments on the Horizon
    • Why Cancer Treatments Sometimes Fail
  • 5.8. How Can Cancer Be Prevented?

Biology in Perspective

How Do We Know? Cancer-Causing Genes from Malfunctioning Normal Genes
Scientist Spotlight: Peyton Rous (1879–1970)
Technology Connection: Computerized Tomography (CT) Scans
Life Application: Chemoprevention


Chapter 6. Reproduction
What “Kind” of Baby Is It?

Case Study: The Fastest Woman on Earth

  • 6.1 How Do Males and Females Form?
    • The Stages of Sex Determination
    • Chromosome Instructions
    • Hormone Instructions
  • 6.2 What Happens If the Hormonal Signals Are Missing or Misread?
    • Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
    • Pseudohermaphroditism
  • 6.3 How Do Men Produce Sperm?
    • The Testes
    • Sperm and Semen
    • Hormones and Sperm Production
  • 6.4 How Do Women Produce Eggs?
    • The Ovaries
    • The Ovarian Cycle
    • The Uterine Cycle
    • Hormones and Pregnancy
  • 6.5 How Can Pregnancy Be Prevented?
    • Surgery
    • Hormones
    • Barrier
    • Other
  • 6.6 What Causes Infertility, and How Can It Be Prevented?
    • Causes of Infertility
    • Infertility Treatments
  • 6.7 How Can We Tell If a Fetus or Baby Is Healthy?
    • Blood and Urine Tests
    • Screens and Diagnostic Tests
    • Newborn Tests
  • 6.8 What Tests Are on the Horizon?

Biology in Perspective

Life Application: Gender Testing in Sports
How Do We Know? The Female Reproductive Tract Helps Sperm Find an Egg
Technology Connection: Home Pregnancy Tests
Scientist Spotlight: Virginia Apgar (1909–1974)


Chapter 7. Plants, Agriculture, and Genetic Engineering
Can We Create Better Plants and Animals?

Case Study: Golden Rice

  • 7.1. Why Are Plants Such Good Sources of Food?
    • Roots
    • Stems
    • Leaves
    • Flowers
  • 7.2. How Do Plants Make Food?
    • Overview of Photosynthesis
    • Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle
    • The Role of Cells in Photosynthesis
    • The Role of Leaves in Photosynthesis
  • 7.3. What Are the Goals of Genetic Engineering in Plants?
    • Pesticide Production
    • Herbicide Resistance
    • Increased Nutritional Value
  • 7.4. How Was Golden Rice Engineered?
    • Define the Problem
    • Clone the Genes
    • Package the Genes
    • Transform the Cells
    • Confirm the Strain
  • 7.5. How Else Is Genetic Engineering Being Used?
    • Medicine
    • Industry
    • Research
    • Novelty
    • Construction of an Organism’s Genome
  • 7.6. What Are the Risks of Genetic Engineering?
    • Safety
    • Economic Considerations
    • Effectiveness
  • 7.7. How Ethical Is Genetic Engineering?
    • Genetic Engineering and Our Environment
    • Genetic Engineering and Human Life

Biology in Perspective

Scientist Spotlight: Kary Mullis (1944–)
Technology Connection: How to Transform Cells
Life Application: From Teosinte to Maize
How Do We Know? Evaluating the Safety of Genetically Engineered Products


Chapter 8. Health Care and the Human Genome
How Will We Use Our New Medical and Genetic Skills?

Case Study: Carrie Buck and the American Eugenics Movement

  • 8.1. Do Complex Human Characteristics Have a Genetic Basis?
    • Genetic Determinism
    • Defining Normal
  • 8.2. What Is Gene Therapy?
    • Somatic Gene Therapy
    • Germ-Line Gene Therapy
  • 8.3. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Genetically Altering Humans?
    • Somatic Gene Therapy
    • Germ-Line Gene Therapy
  • 8.4. How Can Stem Cells and Cloning Be Used to Alter People?
    • Stem Cells
    • Cloning
  • 8.5. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Stem Cell Research?
    • Benefits
    • Risks
  • 8.6. What Other Challenges Result from Advances in Medical Technology?
    • Privacy
    • Accessibility
    • Danger of a New Eugenics Movement

Biology in Perspective

Scientist Spotlight: Nancy Wexler (1945–)
Life Application: Sex Selection
How Do We Know? How Human Embryonic Stem Cells Can Be Directed to Form Specialized Cells
Technology Connection: Who’s the Daddy?


Chapter 9. Evolution
How Do Species Arise and Adapt?

Case Study: Lactose Intolerance and the Geographic Variation of Human Traits

  • 9.1. How Does Your Body Reflect an Evolutionary History?
    • Human (and Mammalian) Testes Hang Loose
    • You Can Get Scurvy, but Your Pet Can’t (Unless You Have Guinea Pigs)
    • Your Eye Is Organized Backward
  • 9.2. What Convinced Darwin of the Fact of Evolution?
    • The Voyage of the Beagle
    • Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
    • The Modern Synthesis
  • 9.3. How Do Humans Adapt to Their Environment?
    • Lactase Persistence
    • Malaria and Oxidizing Drugs
  • 9.4. How Does Natural Selection Produce Adaptations?
    • The Grants’ 40-Year Study of Natural Selection
    • Fitness and Natural Selection
    • Limits of Natural Selection
  • 9.5. What Are Random Events in Evolution?
  • 9.6. What Is the Evidence for Speciation?
    • Biological Species Concept
    • Evidence for Speciation
  • 9.7. How Do New Species Arise?
    • Genetic Isolation
    • Genetic Divergence
    • Secondary Contact
  • 9.8. Why Is It So Difficult for the Public to Accept Evolution?

Biology in Perspective

Scientist Spotlight: Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890–1962)
Technology Connection: Genbank
Life Application: Public Acceptance of Evolution
How Do We Know? Constructing Evolutionary Trees


Chapter 10. The Evolution of Disease
Why Do We Get Sick?

Case Study: Deadly Malaria

  • 10.1. In What Ways Is Your Body an Ecosystem?
    • The Many Species That Live and Evolve in Your Body
    • The Ecology of Our Resident Species
    • Species That Cause Disease
  • 10.2. Why Do Diseases Evolve Resistance to Antibiotics?
    • How Resistance Evolves
    • Where Resistant Bacteria Come From
    • Resistance to Multiple Antibiotics
    • Why Not All Bacteria Are Resistant to Antibiotics
    • Antibiotics in the Environment
  • 10.3. Why Are Some Diseases More Deadly Than Others?
    • Why Some Diseases Become Milder over Time
    • The “Trade-Off” Hypothesis of Reproduction Versus Transmission
  • 10.4. Where Do New Diseases Come From?
    • Sources of New Diseases
    • Stages of a New Disease
    • HIV/AIDS
  • 10.5. How Can Evolution Help Us Control Disease?
    • Antibiotic Resistance
    • Vaccinations
    • Controlling the Spread of Disease to Select for Milder Forms

Biology in Perspective

How Do We Know? The Many Species That Live on You
Life Application: Malaria and DDT
Scientist Spotlight: Paul W. Ewald (1953–)
Technology Connection: How Vaccines Are Made


Physiology: The Body in Health and Disease

Chapter 11. Homeostasis
Why is it important that the body maintain its internal balance?

Case Study: Max Gilpin

  • 11.1. What Is Homeostasis?
  • 11.2. How Do Homeostatic Systems Work?
    • Homeostatic Systems Have Three Parts
    • Homeostasis Is Achieved Through Negative Feedback
  • 11.3. How Does Your Body Sense Temperature?
    • Core Temperature Sensors
    • Skin Temperature Sensors
  • 11.4. How Does Your Body Adjust Temperature?
    • The Metabolic Furnace
    • Effectors That Cool the Body
    • Effectors That Warm the Body
  • 11.5. How Does Your Body Maintain a Constant Temperature?
    • Sensors and the Hypothalamus
    • Fever
    • Conscious Behavior
  • 11.6. How Does Your Body Regulate Its Fluids?
    • Diffusion
    • Osmosis
  • 11.7. What Does the Kidney Do?
    • The Anatomy of the Kidney
    • The Function of the Kidney
    • How the Kidney Makes Urine
  • 11.8. How Does the Kidney Maintain Water Balance?
    • How Water Enters and Leaves the Body
    • Osmotic Sensors
    • The Water Balance Effector
    • The Water Balance Controller
    • Disrupting the Water Balance

Biology in Perspective

Life Application: How to Avoid Dehydration
How Do We Know? Hypothalamic Control of Temperature
Scientist Spotlight: Homer William Smith (1895–1962)


Chapter 12. Circulation and Respiration
What If Your Body Doesn’t Get the Oxygen It Needs?

Case Study: Blood Doping at the Tour de France

  • 12.1. How Much Oxygen Do You Need?
  • 12.2. How Is the Circulatory System Structured?
    • The Heart
    • Arteries
    • Capillary Beds
    • Veins
    • Blood
  • 12.3. How Is the Respiratory System Structured?
    • Lungs
    • The Respiratory Pump
    • Nose and Mouth
  • 12.4. How Do You Breathe?
    • Getting Oxygen
    • Transporting Oxygen
    • Delivering Oxygen
    • Returning to the Lungs
    • The Chemistry of Gas Exchange
  • 12.5. How Does Blood Pressure Vary Throughout Your Body?
  • 12.6. How Are the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems Controlled?
    • Control of Respiration
    • Control of Blood Pressure
    • Control of Heart Rate
  • 12.7. What Happens When the Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Malfunction?
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Heart Attack
    • Stroke
    • Asthma

Biology in Perspective

Life Application: How Erections Are Produced
How Do We Know? Measuring Blood Pressure
Scientist Spotlight: Michael Ellis DeBakey (1908–2008)
Technology Connection: Cardiopulmonary Bypass Machine


Chapter 13: The Nervous System
Does Your Brain Determine Who You Are?

Case Study: The Only Living Man with a Hole in His Head

  • 13.1. What Are the Parts of the Human Brain, and What Do They Do?
    • Hindbrain
    • Midbrain
    • Forebrain
  • 13.2. What Was Wrong with Phineas Gage’s Brain?
  • 13.3. How Is the Nervous System Organized, and What Does It Do?
    • Overview of Organization
    • The Central Nervous System
    • The Peripheral Nervous System
    • Sensing
    • Putting It All Together
  • 13.4. How Does Cell Communication Lead to Nervous System Function?
    • Neurons Are the Basic Building Blocks of the Nervous System
    • How Neurons Talk to Each Other . . .
    • . . . And What They Say
  • 13.5. What If the Nervous System Is Injured or Diseased?
    • Injury
    • Infection
    • Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • 13.6. Can Mental Health Be Separated from Physical Health?
    • Common Mental Health Issues
    • Drug Use and Abuse
  • 13.7. Can Nervous System Injuries and Illnesses Be Cured?
    • Drugs
    • Surgery
    • Regeneration and Stem Cells
    • Minimizing Damage

Biology in Perspective

Technology Connection: Measuring Brain Activity
Scientist Spotlight: Linda B. Buck (1947–)
Life Application: Concussion
How Do We Know? The Pleasure Centers of the Brain


Chapter 14. Infectious Disease and the Immune System
How Are Invaders Repelled, Evaded, or Killed?

Case Study: The Summer of Sorrow

  • 14.1. What Causes Cholera?
    • John Snow’s Explanation for How Cholera Spreads
    • Robert Koch’s Explanation for What Causes Cholera
    • How Cholera Affects the Body
    • How Vibrio Bacteria Survive and Spread Cholera
  • 14.2. What Invaders Do We Face?
    • Bacteria
    • Protozoa and Other Eukaryotes
    • Viruses and Prions
  • 14.3. How Does the Immune System Protect Us?
    • The First Line of Defense: Don’t Let the Pathogens Get In
    • The Second Line of Defense: Don’t Let the Pathogens Make a Home
    • The Third Line of Defense: Know Your Enemy
    • When the Immune System Fails
  • 14.4. How Can We Harness the Immune System?
    • Natural Immunity
    • Vaccination
    • Passive Immunity
  • 14.5. What Can Help If Our Immune System Fails?
    • Antivenom
    • Antibodies
    • Antibiotics
  • 14.6. How Can We Prevent the Spread of Infectious Disease?
    • Wellness
    • Hygiene
    • Clean Water and Sewers
    • Proper Antibiotic Use
    • Vaccines

Biology in Perspective

How Do We Know? The Immune Response Is Two-Fisted
Life Application: Organ and Tissue Transplantation
Technology Connection: Monoclonal Antibodies: Magic Bullets?
Scientist Spotlight: Anthony S. Fauci (1940–)


Chapter 15. Nutrition, Activity, and Wellness
How Can We Live a Healthy Lifestyle?

Case Study: Dying for the “Perfect Body”

  • 15.1. How Does What You Eat Influence Your Well-Being?
    • Food Quantity and Quality
    • Water
    • Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats
    • Vitamins, Minerals, and Dietary Fiber
  • 15.2. How Does the Body Extract Nutrients from Food?
    • From the Mouth to the Stomach
    • The Stomach and Small Intestine
    • The Pancreas and Liver
    • From the Intestine to the Bloodstream
  • 15.3. How Do Cells Extract Energy from Food?
    • Cell Respiration
    • The Chemistry of Cell Respiration
  • 15.4. What Can a Person Do to Maintain a Healthy Weight?
    • Basal Metabolic Rate
    • Average Dimensions
    • The Body/Mass Index
  • 15.5. What If Weight Becomes an Obsession?
    • Eating Disorders
    • Steroid Abuse
  • 15.6. How Do Muscles and Bones Keep Us Active?
    • Muscles and Bones
    • Moving Muscles
  • 15.7. How Can You Keep in Shape?
    • Exercise
    • Supplements
  • 15.8. How Do We Balance Looking Good with Being Healthy?
    • Weight and Body Image
    • Physical Activity
    • Sleep, Laughter, and Stress Management

Biology in Perspective

Scientist Spotlight: Linus Pauling (1901–1994)
Life Application: Drunkorexia
Technology Connection: “Guaranteed” Six-Pack Abs
How Do We Know? Stress Weakens the Immune Response


Interacting with Nature

Chapter 16. Ecology
How Do We Benefit from a Functional Ecosystem?

Case Study: The Near-Extinction of Kirtland’s Warbler

  • 16.1. How Do Species Adapt to Their Habitat?
    • Adapting to Physical Conditions
    • Adapting to Limited Shelter
  • 16.2. Why Do Species Compete?
    • The Competitive Exclusion Principle
    • Instances when Competitors May Coexist
  • 16.3. How Do Species Exploit One Another?
    • Population Cycles
    • An Evolutionary Arms Race
  • 16.4. When Can Species Cooperate?
  • 16.5. How Do Ecological Interactions Affect Us?
    • We Compete with Other Species
    • We Develop Useful Products and Ideas as a Result of Exploitation Interactions
    • We Capitalize on Mutualisms
  • 16.6. What Does a Functioning Ecosystem Do?
    • Exploitation Interactions Distribute Energy and Nutrients
    • Ecosystems Recycle Material on a Global Scale
  • 16.7. What Benefits Do We Get from a Functioning Ecosystem?
    • Ecosystem Services
    • Disruptions to Ecosystem Services
    • Biodiversity

Biology in Perspective

Scientist Spotlight: Robert Helmer MacArthur (1930–1972)
Technology Connection: Biological Control of Schistosomiasis
How Do We Know? Long-Term Ecological Research
Life Application: Ecology and Human Conflict


Chapter 17. Biodiversity and Human Affairs
How Is the Human Race Like a Meteorite?

Case Study: The Discovery of America

  • 17.1. What Are the Components of Biodiversity?
  • 17.2. What Areas Have the Highest Biodiversity?
    • The Latitudinal Gradient
    • Why the Gradient Exists
  • 17.3. What Can Islands Tell Us About Biodiversity?
  • 17.4. Why Do Different Regions Have Different Species?
    • Biogeographic Realms
    • Wallace’s Line
  • 17.5. How does Biodiversity Change Through Time?
  • 17.6. Why Is Biodiversity Needed for a Healthy Ecosystem?
    • Productivity, Stability, and Ecosystem Health
    • Why Biodiversity Increases Productivity
    • Why Biodiversity Increases Stability
    • Biodiversity Keeps the Food Web Intact
  • 17.7. Why Should We Preserve Biodiversity?
    • The Spotted Owl Controversy
    • Long-Term Benefits of an Old-Growth Forest
    • How Old-Growth Forests Provide Ecosystem Services
  • 17.8. How Do We Keep Track of Biodiversity?
    • The Species Diversity Index
    • Indicator Species and Satellite Images
  • 17.9. Why Might We Be Facing the Sixth Mass Extinction?
    • The Blitzkrieg Hypothesis
    • Background Extinction
    • Human Activity Threatens Biodiversity
  • 17.10. How Can We Preserve Biodiversity?

Biology in Perspective

Life Application: The Importance of Genetic Diversity
How Do We Know? Experimental Island Zoogeography
Technology Connection: Satellite Imagery
Scientist Spotlight: E. O. Wilson (1929–)


Chapter 18. Human Population Growth
How Many People Can a Single Planet Hold?

Case Study: A Story About Bacteria

  • 18.1. How Can Populations Grow So Fast?
    • The Difference Between Linear and Exponential Growth
    • Defining Growth Rate
    • Determining Growth Rate
    • Equilibrium
    • Doubling Time
  • 18.2. Why Don’t Populations Grow Forever?
    • The Effects of Population Density
    • Logistic Growth
    • Our Carrying Capacity
  • 18.3. How Is Population Growth Influenced by Age and Sex?
    • Age, Sex, and Population Growth
    • Age Pyramids
  • 18.4. Why Do Developing and Developed Countries Grow Differently?
    • Total Fertility and Age at First Reproduction
    • Fertility and Mortality Differences
    • Family Planning Differences
    • Demographic Transition
  • 18.5. How Do We Use Information About Population Growth?
    • The Constitution and the Census
    • Planning for Population Shifts
    • Resource Depletion
    • The Limits to Growth

Biology in Perspective

How Do We Know? Modeling Population Growth
Scientist Spotlight: Donnella Meadows (1941–2001)
Life Application: The Demographics of China
Technology Connection: Male Contraception